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Travel Vaccinations for Gambia
 
Travel Advice  |  Food & Drink Safety   Health   Malaria Prevention   Safety
 
REQUIRED VACCINATIONS:
Many people ask "Do I need inoculations to visit The Gambia?" It all depends on what is meant by "need". The first thing to know is that it is not compulsory to have any immunisations to gain entry, unless you are coming from a yellow fever zone. This last requirement does not apply to travellers from the UK, USA, EU or the vast majority of countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa and S. America.

If you are staying in Gambia beyond a couple of weeks you may be advised by your doctor to have certain inoculations. However long your stay it is highly recommended you visit your doctor or travel health clinic first (4 to 8 weeks before your departure) before reserving your holiday. They will almost certainly recommend malaria prevention medications. If you are travelling with children or are pregnant then you, or your children, may require certain vaccinations. Before you travel make sure you are up-to-date on your country's routine vaccines and boosters such as polio, tetanus, diphtheria and MMR.

PLEASE NOTE:
If you are coming to The Gambia from a country with the yellow fever virus (YFV) then you are required to produce at the port of entry a yellow fever health certificate (for those aged 1 year or over) that shows you have received an inoculation against the mosquito borne virus. The yellow fever zones are mostly in sub-Saharan west and central Africa and South America.

If during your stay or after your return home you develop a flu-like illness or any symptoms such as fever, nausea, stomach pain, shivering, sweating, headache discolouration of urine, jaundice  or any  health problems,  then you should immediately go and see your doctor. Some disease symptoms can occur within a few days after infection, while others show up after several weeks or longer.

Do also remember to take along some basic items such as aspirin or paracetamol, antihistamine for insect bites and stings, sunscreen cream to protect against sunburn, anti-diarrhoeal drugs, insect repellent etc. Many of these items are available locally but quality cannot be guaranteed.



LONG-TERM STAY OR RISKY SITUATIONS:
If you are planning on staying in The Gambia beyond the usual 2 weeks holiday or are need to spend some time in deprived urban areas, rural villages or use shared local transport then the following vaccinations are recommended: hepatitis A, meningitis, polio, tetanus, typhoid and yellow fever.  Your doctor can best advise you whether your specific travel plans warrants taking a few or all of these.

 Hepatitis A (HAV)
This is a chronic viral infection present in human stools that causes inflammation of the liver. It is transmitted through exposure to the hepatitis A virus and can be present in contaminated food, water, and sometimes through sharing needles and sexual intercourse. There is currently no available cure for the virus, but a combined immunisation for hepatitis A and B is available and recommended.

If you are infected with hepatitis A then you will show flu-like symptoms such as muscle and joint pain, mild fever, nausea and vomiting. Symptoms of liver infection show up as jaundice, itchy skin, passing pale stools and dark urine as well as an inflamed and tender liver. Such symptoms usually clear up in less than 2 months, and in most cases the liver will recover fully.

To prevent the spread of the disease good personal hygiene is recommended such as washing your hands after using the toilet and before cooking food. Other measures include using a condom during intercourse, making sure that anything you eat is piping hot, drinking only bottled water, not sharing eating or drinking utensils, toothbrushes and towels.

 Meningococcal Meningitis
The bacteria is more common during the dry season (November to June), and The Gambia is located inside the 'meningitis belt' of sub-Saharan Africa, which runs from Senegal to Ethiopia.

The bacteria are transmitted from person-to-person through the air in droplets of respiratory or throat secretions from infected persons. Close and prolonged contact facilitates the spread of the disease. Examples of close contact are sharing drinking or eating utensils, coughing or sneezing on someone and kissing.

The disease causes an inflammation of the membranes surrounding your spinal cord and brain. Symptoms show up as fever, stiff neck and headache. Meningococcal vaccine is recommended, especially if extended contact with the local people is likely.

 Polio
Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious viral disease that mainly affects children and is largely spread through the faecal-oral route or, less often, contaminated food and water. Once infected the virus multiplies in the intestine, from where it can enter the nervous system and can cause paralysis.

The first symptoms of polio include stiffness in the neck, fever, vomiting, fatigue, pain in the limbs and headache.

If you have been immunised as a child and intend to travel to a location where polio is occurring, you should check that you have had your final booster dose which lasts a lifetime.

Rabies
The zoonotic disease is spread by a virus through the saliva of an infected animal, usually through a bite, scratch or lick on broken skin, particularly from dogs and cats, but also bats. The rabies virus attacks the central nervous system causing disease in the brain and death. Depending on the location of initial infection the incubation period for rabies is typically 1 to 3 months, but may vary from less than 1 week to over 1 year.

Early symptoms include fever, vomiting, sore throat, headache, chills, irritability, headache, sleeping problems, and general weakness or discomfort. Later symptoms may include anxiety, hallucinations, hypersalivation, insomnia, hydrophobia, excitation and partial paralysis.

If you are going to stay in remote areas of The Gambia where rapid access to treatment is not available in case of a bite, you should get a rabies vaccination. If you get bitten by any animal then it is advisable to immediately wash the site for at least 15 minutes with water and soap or detergent to flush out and kill the virus. Then seek immediate medical attention from a qualified medical practitioner for post-exposure prophylaxis.

 Tetanus
Tetanus, commonly known as lockjaw, is caused by a bacterium, Clostridium tetani, which exists in the environment (soil, dust, and animal waste) as a spore. A person usually becomes infected with tetanus when dirt enters a cut or wound. The bacterium are likely to multiply in deep puncture wounds caused by soiled nails, tools, knives, as well as burns and animal bites.

Symptoms start with spasms of the jaw muscles, which then proceeds to other muscles and then to seizures and ultimately death in the absence of support treatment. A tetanus-diphtheria  booster shot should confer protection for 10 years.

 Typhoid Fever
Typhoid is a bacterial infection, caused by Salmonella typhi. People can be infected by ingesting food and drink that has been contaminated by the urine or faeces of infected persons.

Symptoms normally develop one to three weeks after infection, and may be mild or acute. They include headache, diarrhoea, high fever, constipation, swollen liver and spleen, malaise, reddish spots on the chest and abdomen.

Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to well known antimicrobials is pervasive.

 Yellow Fever
This is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease mainly found in humans and monkeys which is spread by the day-biting Aedes mosquito. It is mainly present in rural locations in Gambia but outbreaks do occur in urban areas too.

There is no specific treatment for yellow fever virus (YFV). Vaccination, which confers immunity for 10 years, is highly recommended as a preventive treatment for travellers to, and people living in, endemic countries.

The first symptoms of yellow fever usually appear 3 to 6 days after infection. The first phase is characterised by shivers, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting, headache, fever and loss of appetite. After 3 to 4 days, most sufferers improve and symptoms go away. However, in a few patients, the disease enters a 'toxic' phase, when fever comes back, and the patient develops jaundice and sometimes bleeding, with blood showing up in the vomit. About half of patients who go into the toxic phase die within 10 to14 days.



For more information see also:
 WHO - International Travel Health



Travel Advice 

Note carefully:
Always seek the advice of your medical doctor before deciding to take or not to take any medications or health precautions. The above information does not and is not intended to replace or substitute the advice and / or recommendation from your doctor or other authorised medical practitioner.


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